Tuesday, December 31, 2019

Death is a Bastard!

Thus my reaction to the news of the death of a brother priest of my presbyterate, of whom I was very fond, but did not even know was ill. Our relationship, though fond, was not particularly close. We were one in the faith and in the love of Christ and of His Church, and we both knew it and enjoyed sharing that strongest of unifying bonds.

He was 73 years old, older than I would have suspected. I have known him for thirty years and hold him in the greatest esteem, a model priest in every way, a confessor of the faith and of the ministerial priesthood of Jesus Christ.

The purpose of the Incarnation of Our Blessed Lord, the Babe of Bethlehem, which we celebrate at this time, was, by His glorious redeeming Pasch, to destroy bastard death.

May The Reverend Father Stanley Kostrzomb, through the mercy of God, the Passion of Christ, and the Maternity of the Most Blessed Virgin Mary, rest in peace, enjoying therein the glory of God in Christ with the same Virgin Mary and all the angels and saints. Requiescat in pace!

Monday, December 30, 2019

The Famous Conversion of Paul Claudel, Eighteen Years Old

"I had completely forgotten religion and had the ignorance of a savage regarding it. The first glimmer of truth was given me when I encountered the books of a great poet to whom I owe eternal gratitude, one who has had a major influence on my thought, Arthur Rimbaud. The reading of his Illuminations and, a few months later, A Season in Hell, was a major event for me. These books opened, for the first time, a crack in my materialist prison giving me a vivid impression, almost physical, of the supernatural. But my habitual state of suffocation and despair remained the same.

“Such was the unhappy adolescent who the twenty-fifth of December, 1886, took himself to Notre Dame there to follow the offices of Christmas. I was beginning then to write, and it seemed to me that in the Catholic ceremonies, considered as a higher form of dilettantism, I was finding of means of excitation which happened to be possessed by some decadent services and rites. It was in such a mood that, elbowed and pushed about by the crowd, I attended with only a moderate amount of pleasure the High Mass. Then, not having anything better to do I returned to Vespers. The choir boys in white robes, and the young men of the junior seminary of St Nicholas du Chardonnet, who accompanied them, were just about to sing that which I learned later to be the Magnificat. I was myself not sitting, but erect, standing by the second pillar at the entrance to the choir, at the right, on the sacristy side.—And it is then that was produced the event which dominates all my life. In an instant my heart was touched and I believed. I believed with such a clinging force, such a lifting up of my being, with so powerful a conviction, with such a certitude void of any kind of doubt, that since that time, not all the books, nor all the reasonings, nor all the vicissitudes of an agitated life, have been able to shake my faith, nor indeed to touch it. I had had all of a sudden a heart-rending sense of Innocence, of the eternal infancy of God, an unspeakable revelation.”

Saturday, December 28, 2019

The Singing Wise Men, "Sternsiger," Tradition

Every year, during the latter days of Christmas culminating on January 6, half a million young carol singers go door-to-door dressed as the Three Wise Men to bless the Catholic Christian households.
The "Star Singer" refers to three kings from the Orient - Caspar, Melchior and Balthasar - who saw a star announcing the birth of Jesus. According to the Scriptures, the Wise Men followed a star to bring gifts to the Baby Jesus in the manger at Bethlehem, gold, frankincense and myrrh.
In Catholic communities throughout the German speaking lands, the whole family works between Christmas and New Year preparing for the "Sternsinger" events. There's a lot to be done: cutting out wooden stars, making crowns and sewing robes for the kings. The singing groups have to rehearse a broad repertoire of carols.
After the carol singing, the carolers bless the house by writing the abbreviation "C+M+B," bracketed by the numbers of the year, in white chalk on the door, the Latin blessing "Christus mansionem benedicat." In English: "Christ bless this house."
These Three Wise Men, or Magi, are also a popular motif for the decoration of Christmas sweets and cakes.
At the end of each visit the "Sternsinger" collect a donation. In Germany alone, they take up around $50 million each year. The money is given to aid projects for children around the world.

Friday, December 27, 2019

The True Jew Circumcises His Heart

Thomas à Kempis

After, with chapter 1, condemning the pagan rejection of God and its attendant homosexuality--the distortion of nature derived from the betrayal of the Lord of nature--Saint Paul in his Letter to the Romans chapter 2 turns his attention to "the faithful."

Saint Paul there contrasts the infidelity and judgment of the non-believer with that of the believer and concludes that the believing "Jew" and the non-believer will both be judged, each according to his conduct before God, whether good or evil. The purpose of religion and ritual is holiness, to make men really like God, and not just externally but also internally, really: loving God with one's whole mind, heart, soul and strength.

Christ says it this way: "Not every one that saith to me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven: but he that doth the will of my Father who is in heaven, he shall enter into the kingdom of heaven." Matthew 7:21-23

This is Pope Francis' favorite preaching point, the purification, the "circumcision of heart" necessary for believers, and especially for those in sacris.

I would say that one of the first consequences of this is the need for mortification. Believers need to do penance, corporal penance, in order to purify their hearts, beginning with popes, bishops and priests. Fasting and alms-giving are essential to the Christian life. A Catholic who does not deny himself in many things for love of  God is no disciple of Jesus Christ! He would be a hypocrite and a liar.

Self-denial for the sake of Christ is the theme of The Imitation of Christ, which should be, along with the New Testament, the constant meditation and daily exercise of all Catholic clergymen. The Roman Catholic clergyman should take delight in that in Latin, the official language of the Church, which, according to the present and long-standing discipline of the Church, he should know very well. Canon. 249

Wednesday, December 25, 2019

Inverted Pentagram Nativity Star at Vatican

Screenshot from today's Urbi et Orbi
The Vatican videographer focused and stayed on
the inverted star,
but never showed the child Jesus, Mary or Joseph.

Merry Christmas! The masonic cursed star crowns the Vatican creche again, sixth year in a row, as far as I can tell.

Five years ago I noticed the ubiquitous Christmas star in Rome, a five pointed star, pentagram, with a tail. The five pointed star caught my attention because I know that Freemasonry uses that image in its rituals and on its propaganda. Pointing upright it is a Gnostic/Satanic image for "good-luck." Inverted, pointing downward, it is a Gnostic/Satanic curse, a wish for evil, "bad-luck." Noticing it again over the Saint Peter's Square presepio at the Vatican I ask whether it is deliberate. Perhaps someone has designed that inverted pentagram as a curse on the Christian Christmas in Rome, where Freemasonry is undoubtedly very strong these days, even in the Vatican. Note that a much more common traditional Christian star in Catholic iconography has eight points, not five, symbolizing the eighth day, Sunday, the Day of the Resurrection, the Lord's Day.

Question. Why use the redundant and iconographically ambiguous star when every other aspect of the presepe is constructed anew every year? I sense foul play! Please, for Pete's sake, get rid of the inverted pentagram. Surely talented artists can devise countless renditions of a star which do not correspond exactly to a Satanic curse.
The full-screen inverted pentagram is 7:10-7:33 minute.
Notice that the obelisk of Saint Peter's Square is also crowned by a star (actually two eliding stars), eight pointed each, with the top point being the Holy Cross.

Tuesday, December 24, 2019

Traditional Announcement of Christmas, Roman Martyrology

The Twenty-Fifth Day of December, in the 5199th year of the creation of the world, from the time when God in the beginning made out of nothing the heavens and the earth; the 2957th year after the flood; the 2015th year from the birth of Abraham; the 1510th year from Moses, and the going forth of the people of Israel from Egypt; the 1032nd year from the anointing of David King; in the 65th week according to the prophecy of Daniel; in the 194th Olympiad; the 752nd year from the foundation of the city of Rome; the 42nd year of the rule of Octavian Augustus, all the earth being at peace, in the sixth age of the world: Jesus Christ, the Eternal God, and the Son of the Eternal Father, willing to consecrate the world by His most merciful coming, being conceived by the Holy Spirit, nine months after His conception (here the voice is raised and all kneel) was born in Bethlehem of Judah of the Virgin Mary, being made man.

What follows is said in the ordinary voice, but in the tone of a Passion:

The Nativity of our Lord Jesus Christ according to the Flesh.

Monday, December 23, 2019

A Prayer of Forgiveness and Reparation

O Lord Jesus Christ,

Who revealed the infinite mercy of Your Sacred Heart in saying: “Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you” (Mt 5:44) and again, “Bless those who curse you, pray for those who abuse you” (Lk 6:28), I beseech you to give me the grace to obey these commandments of yours, and to persevere in praying daily for those who, in any way, have abused, cursed, hurt, or rejected me.

I pray for those who hate me, for those who resent me and for those who have spoken ill of me. I beg you to bless them abundantly and to pour into their hearts such a profusion of healing mercies that in them and around them love will triumph over hatred, friendship over resentment, sweetness over bitterness, meekness over anger, and peace over enmity. I further ask you to extend these graces to their families and to all whom they hold dear.

Today I pray in particular for N. I present him to Your Eucharistic Face, asking You to envelop him in Its healing radiance, dispelling whatever shadows of sin may have darkened his mind or hardened his heart in anger, hatred, or the refusal to forgive.

For my part, with deep sorrow I confess that I have sinned grievously against others, causing them pain and even endangering their souls. I pray you, O Merciful Jesus, to repair the evil I have done to others and to heal the hurt I have caused them.

In particular, I acknowledge my sins against N. imploring You to heal and repair the harm I have done him.

I ask you so to penetrate my heart with the charity of Your Pierced Heart that I will be able to forgive those who have offended me, to love them sincerely, and to desire for them all that will contribute to their true happiness in this life and in the next.

By means of a permanent intention, I desire to renew this prayer in every offering of Your Holy Sacrifice.

Let the light of Your Eucharistic Face shine in the hearts of all who harbor hatred or resentment toward me, to bring them healing and peace.

Let Your Precious Blood triumph over evil in those against whom I have sinned and in those who have sinned against me, so that, delivered from the shadows of this valley of tears, we may one day praise Your Mercy together in the sweetness of a boundless charity. Amen.

Summa Sermon Notes 3

Here are the Summa references for the EF Sunday Within Octave of Christmas, Circumcision, Epiphany, and Sunday within Octave of Epiphany.

Sunday Within Octave of Christmas
EPISTLE (Gal. 4:1-7)
"Serving under the elements of the world"
   Was the Old Law a law of fear? I-II Q.107, a.1, ad.2; Q.91, a.5
"When the fullness of time was come"
   Was Christ born at a suitable time? III Q.35, a.8
"God sent His Son"
   The mission of the divine Person I Q.43
"Made of a woman"
   Did Christ take His flesh from Mary? III Q.31, a.2; a.4
"From (of) a woman"
   Was Mary a virgin in conceiving Christ? III Q. 28, a.1
   The term "woman" explained III Q. 28, a.1, ad.3
"Made under the law"
   Why Christ wished to assume the burden of the law III Q.37
   Christ and the law III Q.40, a.4
"That we might receive the adoption of sons"
   The adoption of the sons of God III Q.23
   How God, out of His goodness, admits man to happiness III Q.13, a.1
   Difference between:--
      Adopted Son of God
      Natural Son of God III Q.23, a.2
   How one becomes through grace an adopted son of God III Q.23, a.3
   On adoption--See Epistle, 8th Sunday after Pentecost
GOSPEL (Luke 2:33-40)
"This Child is set for the fall and for the resurrection of many"
   Scandal II-II Q.43
      Passive and active II-II Q.43, a.1, ad.4
"And thy own soul a sword shall pierce"
   What is this sword which pierces Mary's soul? III Q.27, a.4, ad.2
"And there was one Anna a prophetess"
   How the birth of Christ was revealed to Simeon and Anna III Q.36, a.3
   The meaning of Simeon, who expected the redemption of Israel, finally knowing Christ, and the Magi who had not expected it so anxiously, knowing it before III Q.36, a.6, ad.1
"Departed from the temple"
   Does prayer require a given place? II-II Q.84, a.3
   Why we worship towards the east rather than the west II-II Q. 84, a.3, ad.3
"By Fasting"
   Fasting II-II Q. 147
"And prayers"
   Prayer II-II Q. 83
"Returned to their city Nazareth"
   Why Nazareth is called the City of Christ; why He was born in Bethlehem and not Nazareth III, Q.35, a.7, ad.2
"Full of wisdom"
   Was there ignorance in Christ? III Q.15, a.3

EPISTLE (Titus 2:11-15)
"The grace of God our Savior hat appeared to all men"
   The manifestation of the born Christ III Q.36
   How the grace of our Savior reached those to whom His birth was not made known III Q.36, a.1, ad.2
"Denying ungodliness"
   Infidelity II-II Q.10
"We should live soberly"
   Temperance II-II Q.141
"And justly"
   Justice II-II Q.58
"And godly in this world
   Religion II-II Q.81
"Who gave Himself for us"
   How Christ was the cause of His own passion and death III Q.47, a.1
"That He might redeem us from all iniquity"
   Were we freed from sin by Christ's passion? III Q.49, a.1
   Were we freed from punishment of sin by Christ's passion III Q.49, a.3
"And might cleanse to Himself a people acceptable"
   Whether by Christ's passion we were reconciled to God III Q.40, a.4
GOSPEL (Luke 2:21)
"After eight days were accomplished"
   Why the circumcision was delayed to the eighth day III Q.70, a.3, ad.3.
"That the Child should be circumcised"
   Whether circumcision was conveniently instituted III Q.70, a.3
   Did it confer sanctifying grace? III Q.70, a.3
   The efficacy of the sacraments III Q.62
"The child"
   Why should Christ wish to be circumcised, when He had not contracted original sin? III Q.37, a.1
   Since Christ by His circumcision merited eternal salvation for us, why should He wish to die on the cross III Q.48, a.1, ad.2; Q.47, a.1; Q.37, a.1, ad.3
   Is circumcision now permissible? I-II Q.103, a.4
"His name was called Jesus"
   Was that name conveniently given to Christ? III Q.37, a.2
   The names of God I Q.13
   Whether salvation other than by Christ is possible II-II Q.2, a.7; III, Q.68, a.1; III Q.46, a.1; a.2; a.3.

EPISTLE (Isaiah 60:1-6)
"Arise, be enlightened"
   Whether, without grace, man can know truth I-II Q.109, a.1
   Did man, in state of innocence, have all knowledge? I Q.94, a.3
   Did children born in state of innocence have perfect knowledge and use of reason? I Q.101, a.1; a.2
   Did ignorance stem from sin? I-II Q.85, a.3
"For Thy light is come"
   How Christ is Head of the Church III Q.8, a.6
   How Christ's grace is in members of the Church III Q.8, a.6
   How is Christ the light and salvation of people to whom He never preached? III Q.42, a.1, ad.1
"The strength of the Gentiles will come to thee"
   Whether Christ's mission was to save the Gentiles III Q.36, a.3, ad.3; Q.42, a.1; Q.46, a.4
   The conversion of the Gentiles III Q.55, a.6, ad.3; II-II Q.176, a.1, ad.3
GOSPEL (Matthew 2:1-12)
"When Jesus was born in Bethlehem"
   Why Christ wished Bethlehem as His birthplace III Q.7; Q.46, a.10
"Behold there came wise men"
   What kind of people were the wise men? III Q.36, a.3, ad.2
"From the east"
   Where did they come from? III Q.36, a.3, ad.3; ad.4; ad.6
"To Jerusalem"
   Why the star did not lead the wise men to Bethlehem, Christ's birthplace III Q.36, a.8, ad.3
"Saying where is He that is born"
   Why the wise men did not fear announcing the birth of Christ, with other rulers of the Jews alive III Q.36, a.8, ad.2
   Why a new star appeared at Christ's birth III Q.44, a.2, ad.3
"We have seen His star"
   Which star appeared to the Magi? III Q.36, a.7
   Was it created at the beginning as one of the stars? III Q.36, a.7
   Was this star a comet? III Q.36, a.7, ad.3
   When did the star appear to the Magi? III Q.36, a.6, ad.3
"His" (Star)
   Was this star a sure sign of the nativity of Christ? III Q.36, a.5, ad.3
"In the east"
   Did the star appear more to those in the east than in Judea? III Q.36, a.7
   Since not only in the east but also in the west people are saved through Christ, why did this star appear in the east only? III Q.36, a.3, ad.3
"And are come to adore Him"
   Whether it was proper for the wise men to come and adore Christ III Q.36, a.8
   When after Christ's birth did they come? III Q.36, a.6, ad.3
   Why Herod and Jerusalem were disturbed III Q.36, a.2, ad.3
"And the star went before them until it came," etc.
   Why did the star manifest a residence different from that where Christ was born: III Q.36, a.1
"They adored Him"
   The adoration of Christ III Q.25
"They offered Him gifts, gold," etc.
   Did they confess by these gift any royal dignity or rather that Christ was truly God? III Q.36, a.8, ad.3

Sunday within Octave of Epiphany
EPISTLE (Romans 12:1-5)
"That you present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy"
   Whether corporeal works, continence, martyrdom are a sacrifice II-II Q.85, a.3, ad.2
   On parts of temperance II-II Q.143
"That you may prove what is the good will of God"
   Is it lawful to doubt if God's will is good II-II Q.127, a.2, ad.2
"Not to be more wise than it behooveth"
   Sobriety and contemplation of wisdom II-II Q.148, a.1, c.
   On humility and bride II-II Q.161; Q.162
"And according as God hath divided to every one the measure of faith"
   Is faith infused in man by God? II-II Q.6, a.1
   Is faith found more in one than another? II-II Q.5, a.4
"For as in one body we have many members"
   Since the intellectual soul is one form, why is it composed of different parts? I Q.76, a.5, ad.3
"So we, being many, are one body in Christ"
   Should there be different offices and states in the church? II-II Q.183, a.2
GOSPEL (Luke 2:42-52)
"according to the custom of the feast"
   Various solemnities of the Old Law, their institution, significance I-II Q.102, a.4, ad.10
   Which feasts of the New Testament followed those of the Old Testament? I-II Q.103, a.4, ad.4
   The observance of the Sabbath and Sunday II-II Q.122, a.4
"And His parents knew it not"
   How is Joseph called the father of Christ? III Q.28, a.1, ad.1
"And asking them questions"
   Why did Jesus ask the doctors questions, since he could learn nothing from them III Q. 12, a.3, ad.1
"Astonished at His wisdom and His answers"
   On the science (knowledge) of Christ III Q.11, Q.12
"And was subject to them"
   Respect to parents II-II Q.101
   Obedience II-II Q.104
"And His mother kept all these words in her heart"
   How Mary had use of wisdom in contemplation III Q.27, a.5, ad.3
"Advanced in wisdom"
   How could Christ advance in wisdom or learn anything? III Q.12
"And grace"
   How could He advance in grace and have fullness of it? III Q.7, a.12

Cf. The Summa of St. Thomas Aquinas, Vol III, New York: Benziger, 1947, 3726-3728.

Sunday, December 22, 2019

Pope Francis' Call for Absolute Change: "Processes!"

At his yearly Christmas Greeting to the Roman Curia yesterday, Pope Francis went full force in support of "processes," "change" as the paradigm of his papacy. At the end of the half-hour presentation, which sounded like the 1960's songs of the Free-Sex-Flower-Children he warned, as usual, against "rigidity" saying that rigidity is an indication of an underlying "imbalance." In other words, to be "rigid" is to be crazy.

It is not clear how to reconcile this model of change with the constancy in moral life and in sound doctrine required by the living God Jesus Christ, and by Canon Law, mandated for the ministers of the Gospel.

Canon 521.2 of the Code of Canon Law says of the man fit for pastor...

He is...to be outstanding in sound doctrine and uprightness of character, endowed with zeal for souls and other virtues, and possessed of those qualities which by universal law are required for the care of the parish in question.

The Appointment and Tolerance of Bad Pastors is Contrary to the Law of the Church

In typical Argentine fashion the Holy Father is a half-century behind the times. The Argentinians today embrace Freudianism and Marxism as if they were new, apparently unaware that those ideologies have been tried and rejected as false by the rest of the world and that one of the bitter legacies of that era has been the widespread perversion of the world with all of its attendant scandals, especially homosexualism, reminiscent of the Church scandals of the 10th and 11th centuries.

Friday, December 20, 2019

Law and Right Against Will-to-Power Relativism

This is an historic speech which very well clarifies the respective roles of each of the three branches of government, the executive (represented by the President), the legislative (represented by the Congress) and the judicial (represented by the Senate).
Above all, it emphasizes the importance of truth as the guiding principle of good government, truth over emotion and arbitrary rule, which is what the rule of law and right is supposed to achieve.
The New York State Supreme Court Building reads

Chronological List of Important Philosophers of the Middle Ages

Blackwell Companions to Philosophy, A Companion to Philosophy in the Middle Ages, ed. Jorge J. E. Garcia and Timothy B. Noone, 2002.

Chronological List
Augustine (b. 354; d. 430) Pseudo-Dionysius (fl. ca. 500) John Philoponus (b. ca. 490; d. ca. 570) Boethius (b. ca. 480; d. 524/5) Isidore of Seville (b. ca. 560; d. 636) Maximus Confessor (b. 580; d. 662) Albumasar (b. 787; d. 886) Alkindi (d. ca. 870) John Scotus Eriugena (b. ca. 800; d. ca. 877) Isaac Israeli (b. ca. 855; d. ca. 955) Alrazi (b. ca. 865; d. ca. 925) Alfarabi (b. ca. 870; d. ca. 950) Saadiah (b. 882; d. 942) Alhacen (b. 965; d. ca. 1040) Avicenna (b. 980; d. 1037) Peter Damian (b. 1007; d. 1072) Avencebrol (b. 1021/2; d. 1057/8) William of Champeaux (fl. ca. 1100) Anselm of Canterbury (b. 1033; d. 1109) Algazali (b. 1058; d. 1111) Avempace (d. 1139) Peter Abelard (b. 1079; d. 1142) Adelard of Bath (b. ca. 1080; d. ca. 1152) Gilbert of Poitiers (b. 1085/90; d. 1154) Bernard of Clairvaux (b. 1090; d. 1153) Peter the Venerable (b. ca. 1092; d. 1156) Peter Lombard (b. 1095/1100; d. 1160) Hugh of St. Victor (b. 1097/1101; d. 1141) Hildegard of Bingen (b. 1098; d. 1179) Peter Helias (b. ca. 1100; d. after 1166) Richard of St. Victor (d. 1173) John of Salisbury (b. 1115/20; d. 1180) Dominicus Gundissalinus (fl. 1150–90) Averroes (b. ca. 1126; d. 1198) Alan of Lille (d. 1203) Moses Maimonides (b. 1138; d. 1204) William of Auxerre (b. ca. 1140; d. 1231) Philip the Chancellor (b. 1165/85; d. 1236) Robert Grosseteste (b. ca. 1168; d. 1253) Alexander of Hales (b. ca. 1185; d. 1245) William of Auvergne (b. 1180/90; d. 1249) Jean de la Rochelle (b. 1190/1200; d. 1245) Albertus Magnus (b. ca. 1200; d. 1280) William of Sherwood (b. 1200/5; d. 1266/71) Richard Fishacre (b. ca. 1205; d. 1248) Richard Rufus of Cornwall (fl. 1231–56) William Arnaud (fl. ca. 1250) Pierre de Maricourt (fl. ca. 1267) Peter of Spain (fl. ca. 1267) Roger Bacon (b. 1214/20; d. ca. 1292) Robert Kilwardby (b. ca. 1215; d. 1279) Bonaventure (b. 1217; d. 1274) Henry of Ghent (d. 1293) Ulrich of Strassburg (b. ca. 1220; d. 1277) Thomas Aquinas (b. 1224/6; d. 1274) John Pecham (b. ca. 1230; d. 1292) Boethius of Dacia (fl. 1270–80) William of Ware (fl. 1290s) James of Metz (fl. ca. 1300) Thomas of Erfurt (fl. ca. 1300) Martin of Dacia (d. 1304) Peter of Auvergne (d. 1304) John of Paris (d. 1306) Ramon Lull (b. 1232/3; d. 1316) Roger Marston (b. ca. 1235; d. ca. 1303) Arnaldus of Villanova (b. 1238/40; d. 1311) Siger of Brabant (b. ca. 1240; d. after 1282) Matthew of Aquasparta (b. ca. 1240; d. 1302) Giles of Rome (b. 1243/7; d. 1316) Peter Olivi (b. ca. 1248; d. 1298) Richard of Middleton (b. ca. 1249; d. 1302) Godfrey of Fontaines (b. before 1250; d. 1306/9) Dietrich of Freiburg (b. ca. 1250; d. ca. 1310) Thomas of Sutton (b. ca. 1250; d. ca. 1315) Hervaeus Natalis (b. 1250/60; d. 1323) James of Viterbo (b. ca. 1255; d. 1307/8) Simon of Faversham (b. ca. 1260; d. 1306) Vital du Four (b. ca. 1260; d. 1327) Meister Eckhart (b. ca. 1260; d. 1328) Dante Alighieri (b. 1265; d. 1321) John Duns Scotus (b. ca. 1266; d. 1308) Thomas Wilton (fl. ca. 1312) Gonsalvo of Spain (d. ca. 1313) Henry of Harclay (b. ca. 1270; d. 1317) Radulphus Brito (b. ca. 1270; d. 1320) Durand of St. Pourçain (b. 1270/5; d. 1334) Walter Burley (b. 1274/5; d. in or after 1344) William of Alnwick (b. ca. 1275; d. 1333) Peter Auriol (b. ca. 1280; d. 1322) William Crathorn (fl. 1330s) Michael of Massa (d. 1337) Guido Terrena (d. 1342) Marsilius of Padua (b. 1280; d. 1343) Richard of Campsall (b. ca. 1280; d. ca. 1350) Walter Chatton (b. ca. 1285; d. 1343) John of Reading (b. ca. 1285; d. 1346) William of Ockham (b. ca. 1285; d. 1347) John of Jandun (b. 1285/9; d. 1328) Francis of Meyronnes (b. 1288; d. 1328) Gersonides (b. 1288; d. 1344) Richard Swineshead (fl. 1340–55) Francis of Marchia (b. ca. 1290; d. after 1344) John Baconthorpe (b. ca. 1290; d. 1345/8) John of Mirecourt (fl. ca. 1345) Robert Holcot (b. ca. 1290; d. 1349) Thomas Bradwardine (b. ca. 1290; d. 1349) John Buridan (b. ca. 1295; d. 1361) Peter Ceffons (fl. 1348–9) Richard Brinkley (fl. 1350–73) Nicholas of Autrecourt (b. ca. 1300; d. after 1350) Robert of Halifax (b. ca. 1300; d. after 1350) Landulph Caracciolo (d. 1351) Gregory of Rimini (b. ca. 1300; d. 1358) Richard Fitzralph (b. ca. 1300; d. 1360) Berthold of Moosburg (b. ca. 1300; d. after 1361) Adam of Wodeham (d. 1358) Richard Kilvington (b. 1302/5; d. 1361) John Dumbleton (b. ca. 1310; d. ca. 1349) Ralph Strode (fl. 1360–87) William Heytesbury (b. before 1313; d. 1372/3) Albert of Saxony (b. ca. 1316; d. 1390) Nicole Oresme (b. ca. 1320; d. 1382) John Wyclif (b. ca. 1320; d. 1384) Marsilius of Inghen (b. ca. 1340; d. 1396) Peter of Candia (b. ca. 1340; d. 1410) Hasdai Crescas (b. ca. 1340; d. 1410/11) Pierre d’Ailly (b. ca. 1350; d. 1420) John Gerson (b. 1363; d. 1429) Paul of Venice (b. 1369; d. 1429) Jerome of Prague (b. 1370/1; d. 1416) John Capreolus (b. ca. 1380; d. 1444) Paul of Pergula (d. 1455) Gaetano of Thiene (b. 1387; d. 1465) Heymeric of Camp (b. 1395; d. 1460) Nicholas of Cusa (b. 1401; d. 1464) Denys the Carthusian (b. 1402; d. 1472) Peter de Rivo (b. ca. 1420; d. 1500) Gabriel Biel (b. before 1425; d. 1495)
(Bold blue: 10,000 words, bold black: 8,000 words; the other authors receiving 5,000, 3,000 or 500 word biographies in the Companion.)

The Middle Ages is not only the longest period of philosophical development in the West,but also one of the richest and more complex. Its roots go back to ancient philosophy and we are still living with some of its consequences today. Indeed, a very large part of our philosophical vocabulary, whether in English, Spanish, or any other western European language,was developed in the Middle Ages, and most of the philosophical problems about which we still worry were first formulated in the version in which we know them in this period. The historical importance of the Middle Ages and its influence in the subsequent history of western thought is difficult to overestimate.
In spite of this, however, the study of the philosophy of the Middle Ages was, until relatively recently, rare outside Roman Catholic contexts. Secular universities, and even Christian colleges from denominations other than Roman Catholicism, rarely offered courses in medieval philosophy, and their faculty seldom did research in the field. The medieval period was mentioned in two kinds of courses: in history of philosophy sequences,the Middle Ages was usually appended to the ancient period, as an afterthought, and was generally given little emphasis; in courses in the philosophy of religion, where arguments for the existence of God were examined, mention was usually made of Anselm’s so-called ontological argument and Aquinas’s “five ways.”
This dismal situation has been changing gradually, although it is still true that most of the leading philosophy departments in the English-speaking world do not yet have specialists in the Middle Ages. Some do, however, and this has not gone unnoticed in other, less prestigious, places. Medieval philosophy is gradually becoming respectable. First-rank presses are publishing books on medieval philosophy, and even bringing out anthologies of texts to be used in the classroom. Unfortunately, there is still much that needs to be done. For one thing, we do not yet have a book that contains the main facts about, and presents the main views on, the key figures of the period. And, indeed, this is the gap we aim to fill in part with this Companion. The idea behind it is to have, in one volume, most of the back-ground information one needs to approach medieval texts...

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Saints Making Money for God's Work

That is the genius of Opus Dei: lay men and lay women in every walk of life spending themselves for the service of God and neighbor in and through their professional work; and, yes, making money! putting money at the service of God.

Saint Josemaría's charism was to read the signs of the times. He saw that secular humanism had sacked, raided, plundered and shut down the monasteries. So he took the monastery to the street, to the university, to the bar, to the theater, to Wall Street, to the internet, to any profitable venture: forming contemplatives in the world in selfless service, in holiness, like Christ Himself, and under the protection of the Mother of God, faithful sons of the Church.

Saints are to be men and women like all other men and women, indistinguishable from them, and totally dedicated to God in Jesus Christ, in the Catholic faith, in every activity and using all the means which men and women use today for themselves, putting all of them at the service of God.

"The love of Our Mother will be the breath that kindles into a living flame the embers of virtue that are hidden under the ashes of your indifference."
Josemaría Escrivá, The Way, 492.

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Anti-Defamation League is Jewish Mafia

https://banned.video/watch?id=5de19ed2816f0b0027a0bc56 E. Michael Jones interview with Alex Jones. Infowars.com

Cf. Pope Benedict blames the sexual revolution for the corruption of the clergy.

"The Church and the Scandal of Sexual Abuse" --Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI

Friday, December 13, 2019

Summa Sermon Notes 2

Here are the Summa references for the EF 4th Sunday of Advent, Christmas Day and Feast of Saint Stephen.

4th Sunday of Advent
EPISTLE (I Cor. 4:1-5)
"As ministers of Christ"
   Holy Orders Suppl. Q.34
   Hierarchy of powers and orders Suppl. Q.40, a.6; II-II Q.87, a.4, ad.2
"Here now it is required," etc.
   Avoiding rash judgment II-II Q.60, a.2; a.3
"For I am not conscious to myself of anything, yet am I not hereby justified"
   Can a man know he has grace? I-II Q.112, a.5
"Who both will bring to light the hidden things of darkness"
   The book of life I Q.24
   After resurrection will each one know all his sins? Suppl. Q.87, a.1
   Will each one then read what is in the conscience of the other? Suppl. Q.87, a.2
GOSPEL (Luke 3:1-6)
"Preaching the baptism of Penance"
   Why it became John to lead a severe life III Q.38, a.2, ad.2.
"For the remission of sins"
   Did John's baptism confer grace? III Q.38, a.3
"And He came into all the country about the Jordan"
"And all flesh shall see the salvation of God"
   The incarnation III Q.1
   The manner of life of Christ III Q.40

Christmas Day
EPISTLE (Titus 2:11-15)
"The goodness and kindness of God our Savior hath appeared"
   The infinite goodness of God I Q.6; III Q.1, a.2
"Not by the works of justice which we have done"
   Can man merit eternal life? I-II Q.114, a.3
"But according to His mercy"
   The mercy of God I Q.21
   Whether eternal life is grace or mercy I-II Q.114, a.3, ad.2
   How we are all born subject to sin I-II Q.81, a.1; a.3
"He saved us by the laver of regeneration"
   Why Christ wished that grace be conferred on man through the sacraments. III Q.61
   How Baptism is called the laver of regeneration III Q.66, a.1. ad.2
GOSPEL (Luke 2:1-14)
"Let us go over to Bethlehem"
   Why did Christ wish to be born in Bethlehem? III Q.35, a.7
   Why was not Christ born in Rome? III Q.35, a.7, ad.3
"They understood"
   The gift of understanding II-II Q.8
   The nativity of Christ III Q.35
   The manifestation of the new-born Child III Q.36
"Glorifying and praising God"
   Adoration of God II-II Q.84

Saint Stephen
EPISTLE (Acts 6:8-10; 7:54-59)
"Stephen, full of grace and fortitude"
   The office of deacon Suppl. Q.37, a.3; a.4
   The gift of fortitude II-II Q.123
   Is plenitude of grace proper to Christ III Q.7, a.9; a.10
"Did great wonders and signs"
   Miracles II-II Q.178
"Disputing with Stephen"
   Should we dispute publicly with infidels II-II Q.10, a.7
"You have always resisted the Holy Ghost"
   The sin against the Holy Ghost II-II Q.14
   Was there contumely in St. Stephen's talk to Jews? II-II Q.72, a.2. ad.2
"Saw Jesus standing," etc.
   How he saw Jesus standing when Christ had already risen and was sitting at right hand of the Father III Q.58, a.1, ad.3
"I see the heavens opened"
   For whom is heaven open? III Q.49, a.5, ad.3
"Lord, lay not this to their charge"
   The perfect love of our enemy II-II Q.25, a.8
GOSPEL (Matthew 23:34-39)
"Behold I send to you," etc. "And some of them you will put to death"
   Ingratitude II-II Q,107
   Martyrdom II-II Q.124
   Confession of faith II-II Q.3
"That upon you may come all the just blood," etc.
   Punishment of one for another's sin I-II Q.87, a.8
"How often would I hive gathered," etc.
   Is God's will always fulfilled? I Q.19, a.6
   Twofold will of God I Q.19, a.11

Cf. The Summa of St. Thomas Aquinas, Vol III, New York: Benziger, 1947, 3725-3726.

Thursday, December 12, 2019

Summa Sermon Notes 1

"Integration of Epistle and Gospel of Each Sunday of the Year with the Summa"

Here is a Sermon Guide for Extraordinary Form (EF) Masses based on the Summa Theologica of Saint Thomas Aquinas. First is this Sunday.
Of course, the Philippians (chapter 4) Epistle can be preached for Ordinary Form Masses too, since the Gaudete entrance antiphon comes from it. It is also the Second Reading of Year C. The Gospel is used in Year B.
The reference I give is to the first question dealing with each topic, which might go on, beyond the question cited, to succeeding question(s).
Next I give the preceding Sundays of Advent. Note also that the EF Gospel for the Second Sunday is the Ordinary Form Gospel this Sunday (Year A).

3rd Sunday of Advent
EPISTLE (Philipp. 4:4-7)
   Joy II-II Q.28
      Sins opposed to II-II Q.35
"Let you modesty" II-II Q.160
   Kinds of modesty II-II Q.161
"The Lord is nigh"
   How god is present in things I Q.8, a.2
   Specially present in man I Q.8, a.3
   Specially present in the saints I Q.,8, a.3
"In everything by prayer"
   Prayer II-II Q.83
"And the peace of God"
   Peace II-II Q.29
GOSPEL (John 1:19-28)
"And he confessed and did not deny"
   Humility II-II Q.161
      Grades of II-II Q.161
   Virtue of truth II-II Q.109
   Lying II-II Q.110
   Baptism of John III Q.38
   Sin of lying II-II Q.110, a. 3
   Sacrament of Baptism III Q.68
   Law and grace I-II Q.109
"Nor the Prophet"
   Prophesy II-II Q.171
"Whose shoe I am not worthy," etc.
   Perfection of God I Q.4
Can the human qualities in Christ be said of Christ as God III Q.16, a.4

2nd Sunday of Advent
EPISTLE (St. Paul Rom. 15:4-13)
"What things soever were written"
   Necessity of Scripture, etc.
   Truth of Scripture II-II Q.110, a.1; a.3
"Be of one mind to another"
   Avoiding discord II-II Q.35
"Jesus Christ was the minister of circumcision"
   Christ preaching to Jews and Gentiles III Q.42, a.1
"Gentiles are to glorify God for His mercy"
   Conversion of Jews due to justice and truth
   Conversion of Gentiles to God's mercy I Q.21, a.4, ad.2
GOSPEL (Matt. 11:2-10)
"Art Thou He who art to come"
   Did John doubt Christ was the Messias? II-II Q.2, a.7, ad.2
"Blessed is he that shall not be scandalized in Me"
   Faith II-II Q.1
      and charity II-II Q.6, a.2
      Christ II-II Q.6, a.1
   Explicit belief in Christ necessary? II-II Q.2, a.7
"A man clothed in soft garments"
   Virtue or vice of eternal adornment II-II Q.169, a.1
   Use of expensive clothing II-II Q.169, a.1, ad.2
   Religious (mendicants) and use of shabby garments II-II Q.169
   Women, and expensive clothes, and covering
      head in church II-II Q.169, a.2
      use of rouge, powder, etc. II-II Q.169, a.2, ad.2
      use of men's clothes II-II Q.169, a.2, ad.3
   Men using women's clothes
   External worship. See Gospel for 1st Sunday after Octave of Pentecost
"And more than a prophet"
   Was John a greater prophet than Moses? II-II Q.174, a.4, ad.3
How John was more than a prophet III Q.38, a.1, ad.1
"Who shall prepare Thy way before Thee"
   How John prepared the way of the Lord III Q.38, a.1; a.2, ad.2

1st Sunday of Advent
EPISTLE (St. Paul Rom. 13:11-14)
"When we believe," etc.
   Faith II-II Q.1
      necessary for salvation II-II Q.1 a.3
      articles of II-II Q.1, a.6
      articles enumerated II-II Q.1, a.6
      symbol of II-II Q.1, a.9
   Gospel and defined truths II-II Q.1, a.9
"The night is passed"
   Old and New Law I-II Q.107
"Not in rioting and drunkenness"
   Gluttony II-II Q.148
   Drunkenness II-II Q.150
"Not in chambering and impurities"
   Chastity II-II Q.151
   Lust II-II Q.153
"Not in contention and envy"
   Discord II-II Q.37
   Contention II-II Q.38
   Envy II-II Q.36
"Put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ"
   Putting on Christ III Q.69, a.9, ad.1
GOSPEL (Luke 21:25-33)
"There shall be signs in the sun" Suppl. Q.73
"Sun, moon and stars not giving light" Suppl. Q.83, a.2
"The powers of the heavens shall be moved"
   How the powers of the heavens will be moved at coming of Our Lord Supp. Q.73, a.3
"Seeing the Son of Man coming"
   The general judgment Suppl. Q.88; 89; 90
   Judiciary power of Christ
      special to Christ
      extent of
"With great power and majesty"
   Do the condemned witnessing this power recognize Christ as God? Suppl. Q.90, a.3
   See also Gospel for All Souls' Day

Monday, December 9, 2019

Tradition is a River --Bishop Rey

Saint Apollinare Ravenna Sarcophagus
"Tradition is not a museum but a river, which has its source in the mystery of Christ and which, through its doctrine, the worship, and the life of the Church irrigates the succeeding generations through the centuries."

His Excellency Dominique Rey, Bishop of Fréjus-Toulon

Saturday, December 7, 2019

Cardinal Sarah, Traditional Retreat for Priests: Rome 2020

Philip Neri at Mass, Joan Llimona (Antoni Gaudí pose)

The tenth annual traditional retreat for priests in Rome will be Sunday, February 16 to Saturday, February 22. The retreat will be in Italian.

Below is the announcement from the website. Use the e-mail address to register or for further information.

10° corso degli esercizi spirituali per sacerdoti e religiosi 16-22 febbraio 2020
Il Sodalizio "Amicizia Sacerdotale Summorum Pontificum" organizza il 10° corso di Esercizi spirituali per sacerdoti, religiosi, seminaristi e giovani in discernimento vocazionale. L'arrivo è previsto nel pomeriggio di domenica 16 febbraio. Gli Esercizi spirituali inizieranno alle ore 19,00 della domenica con il canto del Veni Creator e i Vespri. Gli Esercizi si concluderanno col canto del Te Deum e la Benedizione Eucaristica di sabato 22 febbraio alle ore 12,00 e il pranzo. Sede degli Es.Sp. sarà la Casa Divin Maestro dei Padri Paolini in Ariccia (RM), Strada Statale 218 km 11.

Quota per la settimana: euro 400,00

Per informazioni e prenotazioni:
e.mail: amiciziasacerdotale@gmail.com

Predicatore del corso degli esercizi spirituali: S.Em. Rev.ma il Sig. Card. Robert Sarah

Tema: Sacerdozio e vita ascetica

N.B. Si ricorda ai sacerdoti che gli Esercizi si svolgeranno in assoluto silenzio e le celebrazioni si svolgeranno secondo la Sacra Liturgia latino-gregoriana. Verrà data la possibilità di celebrare la Santa Messa anche nella "forma ordinaria". E' previsto indossare la veste talare o l'abito religioso durante gli Es.Sp. Inoltre è necessario portare la biancheria personale per la celebrazione individuale della Santa Messa quotidiana (amitto,camice, cingolo, purificatoio), la cotta, la berretta e il Breviarium Romanum (con i testi dei salmi della Vulgata) per la recita in comune delle Ore canoniche.Grazie.

Gli Esercizi sp.vengono offerti "secundum intentionem Vicarii Christi".

Friday, December 6, 2019

Catholic Hyperdulia is Greater than Protestant Latria

"Brownson, who never like to minimize anything Catholic, remarked that while Catholics did give to [the Blessed Virgin] practically the same devotion as Protestants gave to God, they did not give a millionth part of what Catholics gave to God. Catholics offer to God the sacrifice of the Mass."

Daniel Sargent, Four Independents, New York: Sheed and Ward, 235. 1935.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

33 Ways to Save Virginity for Marriage, for those 21 and Older, and those who Live Away from Home

In a world filled with sexual imagery, and boyfriends demanding sex, so many girls are wondering how they can possibly keep their virginity till marriage. Here are some rules that help you keep your virginity by guarding and cultivating real relationship, chastely.

Please note that teenagers should never “date” without supervision.

Alas, there is little one can do for college students who live in co-ed dorms except follow the below rules to the best of their ability.

May St. Joseph and the Blessed Mother be your witnesses.

1. Turn the lights on. Getting caught up in the moment is much easier in the dark. Darkness hides things, but if you keep everything in the light, you’ll be able to see more clearly both in your head and in your heart.

2. Get out. It’s easy to let your hangout default become something that involves snuggling while glaring at a screen. Too much of that and you’ll get super comfortable and then super bored. Bored and comfortable can lead to trouble. Get out and get active. Volunteer for a worthy cause, do adventures in the great outdoors, pick up a new hobby, play a sport, learn a new skill, whatever it is, your time discovering new things together will help you discover new things about each other. And while you’re at it, invite another couple, or your entire posse, to join you.

3. Put yourself in interruptible situations. While this isn’t always possible, do your best to allow yourself to be interrupted. Something as simple as cracking the door to your dorm room ensures that you won’t let things go…

4. Be accountable. If you’ve struggled with sexual purity in the past, find yourself an accountability partner who will ask you how things are going. It will motivate you to know that you can give a good report when prompted.

5. Spare the details. Having the “how far have you gone” conversation is mainly about idle curiosity and can stir up unnecessary images and desires. You don’t owe your boyfriend/girlfriend a detailed account of your sexual history. There may come a time when general information that will affect your relationship needs to be shared, but again, spare the details.

6. Give yourself a curfew. The later it gets the longer you might let things go too far. Set a time to say goodnight and go home. Grandma is right: “Nothing good ever happens after 2 AM.” Or is it midnight? Decide what is reasonable beforehand, and stick to it.

7. Be committed. Know who you are and whose you are. Know why keeping your virginity till marriage matters. Then make a commitment–to God, to yourself, and to each other–that you will strive for keeping your virginity till marriage. If you’re halfhearted, your resolve won’t last long. And if you’re not on the same page, it’ll be very difficult. But if you’re both serious about being holy and keeping your relationship pure, you have a real shot.

8. Pray for each other. The purpose of dating is to discern marriage; the purpose of marriage is to get each other to heaven. If you’re not praying avidly for your partner’s sanctification, what are you doing? Pray to keep your virginity, of course, but pray for your partner even more. It’s easier, I think, to be willing to compromise your own salvation in the heat of the moment than to endanger the soul of someone you love and for whom you pray daily. Making little sacrifices and offering them for your partner’s virginity will keep this at the forefront of your mind–and probably bring that desire to mind when other desires threaten to push it aside.

9. Set boundaries. “We’re not going to have sex” is a great start, but there’s more to keeping your virginity till marriage than just avoiding intercourse before marriage. Sit down early in the relationship and discuss what you think is appropriate in different stages in your relationship. Of course, touching things you don’t have (pause to make sure everyone’s grasping my euphemism) is reserved for marriage. “Don’t do anything you wouldn’t do with your grandma looking on” is a good guide. Maybe you don’t want to kiss before you’re engaged. Maybe you want to talk about how many feet should be on the floor when you’re cuddling. Try not to be too legalistic but do be aware that there’s more to keeping your virginity till marriage than sex. If you’re not comfortable having this conversation with your partner, you might want to reconsider either this relationship or your readiness to be in a relationship. It might be awkward but it’s important enough to endure.

10. Dress chastely. Your bodies are lovely and there’s nothing dirty or wrong about them. But they were made to be given only to the body–and the eyes–of your husband. Even if you’re not willing to dress chastely for the myriad men in your life who are trying desperately to see you as a person and not an object, do it for the one man you love. If you’re dressed like you’re wearing clothes, not underwear, then he’ll have less trouble.

11. Don’t watch pornography! It is no solution to temptation to indulge that temptation in another venue. Using pornography and masturbating don’t release sexual tension, they distort it and cause it to grow. Pornography is also as addictive as crack and has serious consequences on more than just your love life. Here are some tips on leaving pornography behind. Do it now.

12. Repent. You’re going to fall. Don’t give up! Get up, get to confession, and redouble your effort. Reconsider your relationship and the rules you’ve set for yourself. Talk to a trusted friend. Cry and pout and punch a wall but do NOT give up. It’s a hard road but remember that you follow a God who fell three times under the cross. He knew you would fall. He forgives you. He wants you to try again.

13. In the same spirit, avoid activities—whether together, alone, or with other friends—that will fill your mind with carnal themes and heighten your sexual arousal. Resist the devil (James 4:6-8) as he tempts you to sext, talk dirty or posture your body in suggestive ways, surf or rent even “soft” porn, wear revealing clothing, participate fully in a rowdy, worldly party like a bachelor or bachelorette party (e.g. where strippers or unrestrained drugs or alcohol will be present).

14. Don’t be fixated on physical intimacy. Learn hobbies, skills, new challenges, gifts, talents, ministry and personal goals, conflict resolution, and communication skills are all necessary facets for developing a solid and interesting friendship on the spiritual foundation of Christ.

15. Go to church regularly. Participate in ministry together. Serving together in a shared ministry will increase your awareness of the world around you and dilute your focus on each other.

16. Do more group activities than alone-together activities, especially if physical intimacy is becoming a distraction. Hang out in public places, hang out with family and friends, and don’t spend too much time in the dark or alone in your vehicles or residences.

17. You may have to go on a “relationship fast” to help reset your relationship on purity, if you have become physically involved. This would involve breaking off all communications for an agreed amount of time to seek the Lord and His direction and strength as well as consult others to restart the relationship on a clean note.

18. Encourage him to be the kind of man that you want him to be. Positive reinforcement goes a long way, but don’t do it in a condescending way, like he’s a well-meaning child. “I love going to adoration with you,’ with an affectionate hand squeeze (or, if appropriate, cheek kiss) is more likely to produce the desired results than a two-hour heated debate. Good men love to do things for the women that they care about, and knowing how much you appreciate these gestures will make him want to do them even more.

19. Invite one another to pray. The easiest way to pray more is… to pray more. It’s great when he takes the lead on this, but it’s just fine for you to do so, too. If he’s smart, he’ll get the clue. Pray at the start and end of dates. If you’re on the phone in the evenings, pray together before you go to bed. Frame your relationship in prayer until it’s the most natural thing to do in the world.

20. Develop non-physical ways of showing affection, love (if appropriate), and contrition. Guard against the temptation to say “I’m sorry” or “I love you” physically.

21. Location! Avoid anything that’s a near occasion of sin. Avoid any situation that could quickly take a turn. One of the best ways to do this is always to remain within eyesight and earshot of others.

22. Don’t be afraid to leave a situation, if that’s what virtue demands. Sometimes, ladies (especially, but also men) won’t want to end the night early because they’re afraid of being rude… even when they recognize that sticking around longer will only lead to trouble.

23. The purpose of dating is to find the person you wish to marry, the one who will become the father or mother of your children. Keep that always in mind and terminate the relationship if and as soon as you realize this is not the person.

24. Never allow yourself to be alone in a closed room or parked car with your date.

25. Always plan to be active on a date. Have activities lined up (backup plans too) so you don’t find yourself in a position or situation of idleness. Offense is good defense. Think of activities that will provide opportunities for growth in knowledge of God, each other, and self. Make a regular practice of worshiping and praying together.

26. Dress appropriately for the occasion but always modestly.

27. Regardless of who “pays” for the date no one “owes” anybody anything.

28. Any actions that cause sexual arousal (need I define them?) are to be avoided, including forms of dancing that are designed to cause it. Help each other to say no.

29. A peck, a quick kiss (mouths closed), a brief hug or holding hands are permissible, they are non-sexual expressions of affection.

30. Don’t kid yourself. You are no different from anyone else. Don’t count on your self-control. You are weak! You just can’t go “so far.”

31. Your soul is at stake and perhaps a happy marriage and a possible vocation.

32. The road to keeping one’s virginity till marriage is paved with prayer, the Eucharist, and reading of the New Testament. If you fail, have recourse to the Sacrament of Penance as soon as possible and begin again.

33. Follow these rules and make sure your date or companion does also and the search for a spouse and courtship can be a joy. Otherwise you may become accomplices in deadly sin and guilty of objectifying another person for sexual pleasure. Keep these rules and you will be able to look at your children right in the eyes when you must guide them on their way to marriage and family.
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