Friday, July 31, 2015

The Unborn are The Test for Human Respect! Prophetic United Nations Address of John Paul II October 2, 1979

"Concern for the child, even before birth, from the first moment of conception and then throughout the years of infancy and youth, is the primary and fundamental test of the relationship of one human being to another..."

"...No country on earth, no political system can think of its own future otherwise than through the image of these new generations that will receive from their parents the manifold heritage of values, duties and aspirations of the nation to which they belong and of the whole human family..."

"...I wish to express the joy that we all find in children, the springtime of life, the anticipation of the future history of each of our present earthly homelands..."

"...And so, what better wish can I express for every nation and the whole of mankind, and for all the children of the world than a better future in which respect for human rights will become a complete reality throughout the third millennium..."

Address of His Holiness John Paul II to the 34th General Assembly of the United NationsNew YorkTuesday, 2 October 1979, paragraph 21. Quoted also in Familiaris Consortio, 22 November 1981, paragraph 26.

1979 Priest Saturno with the Pope

Pope John Paul II being shown around the monastic grounds at Clonmacnoise on his way to Galway. He requested the visit, because the monks from Clonmacnoise brought the Christian faith to Poland. Photograph: The Irish Times.

Planned Parenthood VP Says Fetuses May Come Out Intact, Agrees Payments Specific to the Specimen: Video 4

Cardinal Dolan Condemns Trump's Immigration Slur

BY TIMOTHY CARDINAL DOLAN  [Cf. Trump's infamous comments at minute 7:38 of speech.]

Wednesday, July 29, 2015, 5:00 AM

During those happy days decades ago when I taught American religious history to university students, I spent a chunk of time in class on the ugly phenomenon called nativism, defined by the scholar and author Ray Allen Billington as, “organized, white, Protestant antagonism toward the Catholic immigrant.”

It flourished in our country during the 1840s and 1850s — actually becoming a popular political party, the Know-Nothings — and appeared again, in the 1870s, as the American Protective Association; in the 1920s, as the KKK; and during post-World War II America, as Protestants and Other Americans United for Separation of Church and State.

These nativists believed the immigrant to be dangerous, and that America was better off without them. All these poor degenerates did, according to the nativists, was to dilute the clean, virtuous, upright citizenry of God-fearing true Americans.

(Among other American minorities, it must be said, Catholics like me often drew the ire of nativists.)

I made the point to my students that nativism never really did disappear completely, but was a continual virulent strain in the American psyche, which would probably sadly show up again.

This point my students would not buy. “Father Dolan,” they would say, “there’s no denying that this bigotry was there in our past. But, come on! Who could ever believe now that immigrants are dirty, drunken, irresponsible, dangerous threats to clean, white, Protestant, Anglo-Saxon America! Those days are gone.”

I wish I were in the college classroom again, so I could roll out my “Trump card” to show the students that I was right. Nativism is alive, well — and apparently popular!

American historians describe two approaches to the immigrant. One is, sadly, the nativists, who see the unwashed, ignorant, bothersome brood as criminals and misfits who threaten “pure America,” and are toxic to everything decent in the United States. As journalism professor Paul Moses writes, this group believed that “American society was doomed, as the foundation stone of Plymouth Rock eroded with the crash of each immigrant wave.”

The second is the more enlightened and patriotic view. This approach sees the immigrant as a gift to our nation, realizing that the only citizens whose ancestors were not immigrants are the Native Americans. All of us here are descendants of newcomers.

Yes, this second group claims, we need to control our borders, fairly regulate immigration and be prudent in our policies and laws, but we are wise to consider the immigrant as good for our beloved nation. To welcome them is virtuous, patriotic and beneficial for the economic and cultural future of our country.

I am not in the business of telling people what candidates they should support or who deserves their vote. But as a Catholic, I take seriously the Bible’s teaching that we are to welcome the stranger, one of the most frequently mentioned moral imperatives in both the Old and New Testament.

As an American, I take equally seriously the great invitation and promise of Lady Liberty. It’s one of the reasons why I am so eager to share with Pope Francis the wonderful work being done by our Catholic Charities to assist immigrants who come to New York, and look to the church for assistance and a warm welcome. I guess, as a Catholic American, I’m a bit biased. Walt Whitman called my predecessor Archbishop John Hughes a “mitred hypocrite,” because the prelate defended his poor Irish immigrant flock — the Mexicans of his day — from the nativists. The same Whitman called the immigrants “these dregs of foreign filth, refuse of convents, scullions from monasteries . . .”

Thank God Walt Whitman stuck to poetry, and did not run for President.

Dolan is archbishop of the New York Archdiocese.

Exposing Planned Parenthood's Abortion Industry Crimes

Here are a couple of Lila Rose viral videos of Planned Parenthood's systematic cooperation with statutory rape and infanticide.

Thursday, July 30, 2015

5 Tips from the Pope on the Internet and TV

Koševo Stadium

During the encounter with young people in Sarajevo (Saturday, June 6), Pope Francis gave some practical advice about the use of television, smartphones, computers, tablets...

1­. Throw away bad books and switch off harmful programs. “In this age of images, we have to do what was done in the age of books: choose those that make me a good person." “We need to learn how to choose programs, and this is our responsibility. If I see that a program is not good for me, that it undermines good values and makes me vulgar, or has scenes that aren't clean, I have to change the channel. Just like what was done in the 'stone age,' back when I was young: when a book was good, you read it, but when it harmed you, you threw it away."

2­. Flee from the slavery of computers. Fight against “bad fantasy, the fantasy that kills the soul. If you, who are young, live your life connected to the computer and become a slave to the computer, you lose your freedom. And if you seek material on the computer that is impure, you lose your dignity." Both on television and on the internet, “there are unclean things, ranging from pornography to semi-pornography."

3­. Say no to trash TV. Also be careful about “empty shows that don't promote good values: for example, shows that encourage relativism, hedonism, consumerism…. We know that consumerism is a cancer in our society. I will speak about this in the encyclical that will be published at the end of this month."

4­. Computers and TV's in common areas at home. “Some concerned parents don't allow computers in their children's bedrooms. Computers should be located in the common areas of the home. This is a small help the parents can implement" to prevent their children from being exposed to all types of bad things.

5­. No family meals with the cellphone. “Being too attached to computers, to mobile phones, etc. harms the soul and takes away freedom. You become enslaved to them. Many parents have told me that while eating at the table with their family, their children are in another world with their cellphones."

Pope Francis ended by saying: “the virtual world is a reality that we cannot ignore. We have to guide it along the right path, because it represents human progress. But when it takes us away from life in common with others, from family life, from social life, and also from sports, the arts…, and we become attached to the computer, then it's something pathological."

The Saint Luke Ordinariate Parish, Washington, DC Anglican Use Ordinariate in America

Once Anglican, now Catholic: St. Luke's Parish (of the Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter) is now, since last year, in Washington D.C. at Immaculate Conception Church.

It's the Tridentine Mass in the vernacular! Or should we call it the Extraordinary Form of the Roman Rite made ordinary, now housed at a regular Catholic Parish.

These ordinariate parishes of the Anglican use are ever more numerous in the USA, thank God! I know of two or three others: Houston, Boston, Scranton,

YouTube video, published on Oct 4, 2013 Then located near Washington D.C, St. Luke's Catholic Church is an Anglican-Use Parish, a part of the Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of St. Peter. Originally an Anglo-Catholic parish of the Episcopal Diocese of Washington, we were received and confirmed into the Catholic Church on October 9, 2011 by the Archbishop of Washington, Donald Cardinal Wuerl. We are in full communion with the Holy See and fulfill the regular Sunday obligation. Please visit our website for more details!


May 24, 2014

My Dear Parishioners,

Please welcome Fr. Mark Lewis and St. Luke’s Ordinariate Catholic Community with a special letter to the parishioners of Immaculate Conception Church about a new and exciting moment in the history of our Catholic Church and in the life of our own parish.

Monsignor Watkins

Greetings in the Name of our Lord Jesus Christ!

Please allow me to introduce myself. My name is Fr. Mark Lewis, and I am the pastor of St. Luke’s Ordinariate Catholic Community. I know you have heard about the Ordinariate; this brief communication is to provide you with some additional information about our journey into the Catholic Church. In November 2009, then Pope Benedict XVI issued an Apostolic Constitution entitled Anglicanorum Coetibus (“Groups of Anglicans”), a structure that would allow for groups of Anglicans (as well as their pastors) to enter the Catholic Church while maintaining some aspects of Anglican patrimony. This, needless to say, sparked our interest.

Being a small multi-cultural Anglican parish, St. Luke’s was much more traditional than the trends taking place within Anglicanism. Thus, in February 2010, I and two lay leaders met with the Bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Washington to discuss our future. During that meeting the Bishop suggested we might fit better within the structure of the Catholic Church. He asked that I contact (at that time) Archbishop Wuerl’s office to ascertain if they were interested in helping us to become Catholic. Over the next 17 months we used the time to pray and to examine more closely the Anglican tradition, in particular in comparison to Catholicism. What we discovered was truly the work of the Holy Spirit. We came to the conclusion (the belief) that we were not intending to move to the Church of Rome as a means of leaving The Episcopal Church, but were being drawn to its truth about Jesus and its theology-we discovered the need for Apostolic Authority.

On June 6, 2011, a joint statement from the Archdiocese of Washington and the Episcopal Diocese of Washington announced the intention of St. Luke’s parish to become Catholic. Fr. Scott Hurd of the Archdiocese was assigned as chaplain of St. Luke’s. Under the guidelines set forth by Rome and under the watchful eye of the Archdiocese of Washington we entered the catechetical process. On October 9, 2011, we were made Catholics, confirmed by Cardinal Wuerl in the Crypt Church of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception. We became the first Episcopal Church in America to enter the Catholic Church through Pope Benedicts XVI’s Apostolic Constitution.

In January 2012, I along with about 40 other former Anglican clergy began an intense course of study approved and set forth by Rome. I was ordained a Deacon on June 2, 2012, and three weeks later was ordained a priest by Cardinal Wuerl at the Cathedral Church of St. Matthew.

When St. Luke’s became Catholic we entered into a leasing agreement with The Episcopal Diocese of Washington for the continued use of the church and rectory; that agreement, though, is nearing its completion. In an effort to help secure our future we sought the assistance of the Archdiocese of Washington. We were hoping to relocate to a place that would remain accessible to our current membership, while at the same time be more conducive to attracting all members of the Ordinariate in the greater DC area, as well as new members. When contacted by the Archdiocese, Msgr. Watkins graciously agreed to explore the possibility of St. Luke’s relocating its Masses to Immaculate Conception.

I look forward to worshipping in your magnificent Church! I also look forward to getting to know all of you as I will be assisting Msgr. Watkins when needed.

Please know your generosity will be helping to bring about the fulfillment of Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI’s vision for the Ordinariate, as our mission involves both current and former Anglicans-we seek to bring as many home to Holy Mother Church as possible. Your generosity, and especially that of Msgr. Watkins, provides The Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of St. Peter, as well as St. Luke’s, the best possible milieu for success.

I am excited about this opportunity!

Rev. Mark Lewis – Pastor, St. Luke’s Ordinariate Catholic Community

Tuesday, July 28, 2015

Planned Parenthood Video #3!

Human Capital - Episode 1: Planned Parenthood's Black Market in Baby Parts

Why I Love The Venerable Pope Pius XII Most (Con't.)

Pope Benedict XV Episcopal Ordination of Eugenio Pacelli

I like the Venerable Pope Pius XII the most because he was the pope of my father's youth, also that of my spiritual directors' over the years, the pope under whom Pope Emeritus Benedict was ordained a priest and also Pope Saint John Paul II. It was during the reign of Pope Pius XII that Jorge Bergoglio entered seminary and the Jesuit novitiate. He was also the one who made Blessed Pope John XXIII a cardinal. It just seems to me that his solidly traditional papacy in a war torn world was the foundation of all of the great men of God of our era and of the great men who have most influenced me, including the past two popes, and the present pope, over the past half century and more.

Just to expound on one of the influences. The mentality and work of Ratzinger during the past more than half century began in his seminary years under this great pope and was guided by the light of the Pacelli papacy. Pacelli had been Papal Nuncio to the Kingdom of Bavaria and Germany. During the early days of his ecclesiastical career he worked closely with the master diplomat Cardinal Merry del Val and was consistently effective and promoted during all the papacies before his own reign. He was by far the churchman of greatest influence during the entire first half of the twentieth century. And it was Pope Emeritus Benedict who heroically named Pius XII Venerable.

Cardinal Rafael Merry del Val, Eugenio Pacelli and Nicola Canali at the
1914 signing of the Serbian concordat underneath a portrait of Pope Pius X.
I do confess that Benedict is my man, but the source of Benedict was largely Pius XII (in whom also breathed Pope Saint Pius X's spirit and that of his successors, hence the same name of close continuity)! That is why I love him so, because he was the great patriarch of our fathers! He received a great heritage which he loyally passed on.
And one other thing, he never gave communion in the hand, predating, providentially, the confused Novus Ordo! He lived, reigned, and died in the extraordinary form of the Roman Rite, the penultimate pope to do so! A true and most noble prince and great monarch of the Church, by God's design.
And, last, but not least, I love the Venerable Pope Pius XII above all the modern papacies because he loved and was so loved by the Jews., e.g Eugenio Zolli.

Monday, July 27, 2015

Twelve Spanish Songs by the Great Catalonian Pianist Federico Mompou & Victoria de los Angeles Solo, etc.

Combat del Somni

Damunt de tu només les flors.
Eren com una ofrena blanca:
la llum que daven al teu cos
mai més seria de la branca.
Tota una vida de perfum
amb el seu bes t’era donada.
Tu resplendies de la llum
per l’esguard clos atresorada.
Si hagués pogut ésser sospir
de flor! Donar-me com un llir
a tu, perquè la meva vida
s’anés marcint sobre el teu pit.
I no saber mai més la nit
que al teu costat fóra esvaïda.

Lying upon you, like a white
Offering, there were flowers only.
From them your body drew the light,
Without them now the branch was lonely.
And as they gave their kiss to you,
Their life of fragrance was sent flowing.
From your closed eyes the light shone through:
You were resplendent, you were glowing.
Could I but be a flower’s sigh
And, like a lily, give you my
own self, so that my very being
Would fade away upon your breast
And never need again the rest
Of night, that from your side is fleeing.

Pedro A. Cantero's Sublime Comments on this Video from 11 months ago.
Atrapado por la gripe, la cabeza como un bombo, escucho Música Callada de Frederic Mompou, interpretada por él mismo. ¡Qué diferencia!. Cuando él toca es otro el tono. Sus dedos, sus inmensos dedos, no aporrean las teclas, las arriman, como el badajo a la campana del alba o el mazo del monje al gong de la oración vespertina. Sus arpegios elevan. En esta situación es lo único aceptable. Me procura serenidad y apacigua mis demonios. Cada nota ahuyenta todo mal, aporta claridad y confianza. Escribir conlleva el doble riesgo de la incongruencia y de la redundancia. Tan arduo como hacerlo sobre meditar, tan fatuo como discurrir sobre el aura, tan arriesgado como rozar el ala a una mariposa. Tanta es la sugerencia de su fraseo y su íntima resonancia que al describirla se esfuma la voz interior, la voz que resuena en los adentros. Él decía, “no puedo pensar la música, debo oírla”. Ahí radica el misterio, oír esa voz callada que solo habla al espíritu y el silencio que implica. El silencio escabullido entre las notas, un silencio que vibra mientras queda rastro de lo que precedió. Ese es el reto que se ofrece a quien escucha a Mompou, escuchar las pausas para oír como suena el silencio. Escucharlo en nuestra propia alma. Resonancias, disonancias de la misma vida. Música en estado puro.

¡Hagan Lío! Make a Ruckus, but Without Destoying Anything! Pope Francis to the Youth of Latin America

Nuestra Señora Santa María de la Asunción, Paraguay Local time: 16.50-Pope Francis meets the Youth of the country along the "Costanera" riverfront of Asunción, at the end of his apostolic journey to Latin America July 12, 2015.
It was an extraordinary gathering of evangelical enthusiasm with the Vicar of Christ and the Latin youth, encouraging them to love the Lord and to do something both youthful and good for the world from the Lord Jesus!

Minute 1:00:00 (One hour into the video)

The other day, a priest jokingly said to me: “Yes, keep telling young people to make a ruckus. But afterwards, we are the ones who have to fix it”. So make a ruckus! But also help in fixing it. Two things: make a ruckus, but organize it well! A ruckus that shall give us a free heart, a ruckus that shall give us solidarity, a ruckus that shall give us hope, a ruckus that shall be born of having met Jesus and from knowing that God Whom I have met is my fortitude. That is the kind of ruckus for you to make...

...Help to organize the mess that you shall make so that it not destroy anything.

Planned Parenthood Proud Sponsors, Which Should be Opposed!

Coca-Cola asked Planned Parenthood to
remove its name from its list or donors.

Here is the latest official list of Companies (in addition to the Government [Federal {and often even State}]) that donate large sums to the criminal abortionist giant Planned Parenthood.

Here are the 38 companies that have directly funded Planned Parenthood.
  1. Adobe
  2. American Cancer Society
  3. American Express
  4. AT&T
  5. Avon
  6. Bank of America
  7. Bath & Body Works
  8. Ben & Jerry’s
  9. Clorox
  10. Converse
  11. Deutsche Bank
  12. Dockers
  13. Energizer
  14. Expedia
  15. ExxonMobil
  16. Fannie Mae
  17. Groupon
  18. Intuit
  19. Johnson & Johnson
  20. La Senza
  21. Levi Strauss
  22. Liberty Mutual
  23. Macy’s
  24. March of Dimes
  25. Microsoft
  26. Morgan Stanley
  27. Nike
  28. Oracle
  29. PepsiCo
  30. Pfizer
  31. Progressive
  32. Starbucks
  33. Susan G. Komen
  34. Tostitos
  35. Unilever
  36. United Way
  37. Verizon
  38. Wells Fargo
Coca-Cola, Ford and Xerox had their names pulled from the original list on the Planned Parenthood website.

Lobby your local state and federal government about this, and boycott all the above nefarious companies! to stop paying for this brazen criminality, killing commerce, youth corruption, and body part trafficking all central to the Planned Parenthood industry's mission.

We forcefully oppose Planned Parenthood and, at the very least, will not pay for its corrupt business!

The Titles of the Sea of Galilee

Lake Gennesaret (from the town el-Ghuweir), Lake Tiberius (from the town of Tiberias, still there today), or The Sea of Galilee (from the name of the region).

All of the names refer to the towns and territory West of that "Sea" (technically no Sea at all but a fresh-water lake).

The Jordan flows into it from the North and the Jordan out of it to the South, down to the Dead Sea.

Chopin in the Morning!

Hope you enjoy it as much as I presently am.
Countless familiar energetic melodies of which one never tires!
The Chopin piano is a brilliant trumpet!

Sunday, July 26, 2015

The Sole Source of the Church of Our Savior's Present Ills: Pastoral Instability

Church of Our Savior, NYC

The stability of the Pastor is a canonical norm which is almost universally rejected with devastating consequences for priests and people as we see in the present iconoclasm of the new Pastor in one famous New York City Parish. The elephant in the room is priest term limits! The reward for a job well done is you get shuffled around. In the middle of the twentieth century Stalin's communists and America's Urban Renewal Project very well knew that stability is power, so they moved the masses around and thereby summarily destroyed the cities! Cf. E. Michael Jones, The Slaughter of the Cities.

I do get it. The bishop, who is often upward mobile (viz. temporary), needs to get control of his priests. So, he moves them around to control them, with little if any regard for the good of the parish and the people. It's all about the temporary bishop's needs. Solution: the Pope might make the bishops stay put, as the popes of yore! And thereby put an end to episcopal careerism, and to the ubiquitous abuse of temporary pastorates. The father of the family should be for life!

The real issue is not about the virtue of the two different pastoral liturgical preferences or modernity versus tradition. The real issue is term limits and temporary pastorates, without which there would not be a new Pastor at that midtown parish today and everything would be otherwise hunky-dory! Bishops please take a hint!

The Vatican II principle of subsidiarity would dictate that pastors should normally (aside from canonical crimes) be left permanently in their pastorates. The commitment should be for life. Diocesan priests did not sign up to be transient missionaries! That is the realm of the religious orders. Yet it is highly ironic that often the most stable parishes in dioceses are those of religious orders, which still, tragically, does not count for much!

My Favorite Modern Pope: Venerable Pope Pius XII


Because he is the great pope of the various men who have proved large in my life, who formed me and bequeathed to me their Catholic heritage, which because of them is also mine, and continue to sustain me from heaven and on earth!


Joseph Ratzinger Self-Acknowledged Patristic/Ecclesiological Genius: Recovering the Eucharistic Ecclesiology & Vatican Council II

Ratzinger Priestly Ordination June 29, 1951

When I look back I cannot but experience a profound gratitude over the fact that the "prize-work" of those days [the 1951 {prize-winning} doctoral thesis: "People and House of God in Saint Augustine's Doctrine of the Church"] did not only open the door to a lifelong friendship with Saint Augustine, but also put me on the trail of the eucharistic ecclesiology and thus gave me a way to understand the reality of "Church" which agrees with the deepest intentions of the Second Vatican Council and at the same time ushers into the spiritual center of christian existence.

Concluding paragraph of the new 2011 Prologue to People and House of God in Saint Augustine's Doctrine of the Church in The Complete Works of Joseph Ratzinger, Vol. I, p. 9 (German edition).

Plinthos translation.

Saturday, July 25, 2015

Correcting the Sign Confusion

"Human Rights Campaign"
Pseudonym for Homosexualism!
The Answer to Gaydom!

That to Which I am Presently Listening: Mendelssohn Piano Songs

Two Hours of Continuous Delightful Play!

How about some Debussy? Great fun!

Pater Noster for Non-Believers

Our Father, if you exist, I dare to turn to you.
If you exist, your name is holy: may it be sanctified.
If you exist, your kingdom is order, and likewise it's splendor: may your kingdom come.
If you exist, your will is the law of the world and the law of souls: may your will be done in all of us in everything, on earth as it is in heaven.

Give us, if you exist, our daily bread, the bread of truth, the bread of wisdom, the bread of joy, the super-substantial bread which is promised to those who can recognize it.
If you exist, I have great debts towards you: grant that I will repay my debts, as I would willingly have myself repaid by those who owe me.
In the future, do not abandon me to temptation, but deliver me from every evil...

...The atheist has an obligation to pray thus. One may doubt; but can that sincere soul, going to the depths of his very being, with certitude, deny God? The conditional prayer is therefore an obligation and at the same time an useful appeal.

"Le Pater de L'Incroyant"
Catéchisme des Incroyants, Vol. 1, A.-D. Sertillanges, O.P. Flammarion: Paris, 1930, p. 6.

Plinthos translation.

Friday, July 24, 2015

British Open Champion, Fallen Away Catholic and Fervent Evangelical Baptist

Zach Johnson of the US celebrates after winning the British Open
golf championship in St Andrews, Scotland, July 20, 2015

Zach Johnson: I was reading scripture during Open victory

Zach Johnson won at The Masters National in Augusta, Georgia, USA in 2007 and this past Monday, at The Old Course at Saint Andrews, Fife, Scotland, the British Open. Would that he should return to the Sacraments!
"Except you eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink his blood, you shall not have life in you." John 6:54b


Golfer Zach Johnson says his surprise win in this week's Open Golf tournament was partly inspired by his devotion to prayer and the Bible. The 39-year-old American was a rank outsider, but saw off the threat of emerging superstar Jordan Spieth to win the second Major of his career at St Andrews on Monday. A committed Christian, he told reporters that he'd been reading verses of scripture in order to stay focused throughout the tournament.

"I was reading bits of scripture to myself, things like Psalm 24:7 (which reads, "Lift up your heads, you gates; be lifted up, you ancient doors, that the King of glory may come in")," he told reporters. "I've been reading them all week. I thank God for the talent he's given me, and I take it seriously." In a TV interview, he suggested that these verses had helped to give him focus during difficult conditions. "I had some scripture going in my head and I thank the Lord," he said.

Johnson's words in victory echoed his response to winning his previous Major, the US Masters, in 2007. After that win, he told the assembled media: "I felt regardless of what happened today, my responsibility was to glorify God, and hopefully he thinks I did."

The golfer has always been upfront about his faith. In a testimony article on the FCA (Fellowship of Christian Athletes) website, Johnson says that after growing up in a Catholic household and then heading off in a more worldly direction as a student, he became a Christian after meeting the woman who would go on to become his wife, and for whom marrying a non-Christian would be a 'deal-breaker'. He says he then agreed to explore the faith again.

"I discovered what it meant to 'live for Christ,'" he says, "and that it honestly was something I wanted to do. The facts were there, and I could sense the Holy Spirit at work. Early in the winter of 2002, I gave my life to the Lord. Before I was one," he says, "I always thought being a Christian would be boring. In reality, it has been the complete opposite."

Johnson now refers to his pre-Christian life (with not too much political correctness) as "my blind years", and says his faith now is "all that matters." Monday's victory, and the attached £1.15 million prize, are presumably just a huge bonus.

Martin Saunders is a Contributing Editor for Christian Today and the Deputy CEO of Youthscape. You can follow him on Twitter: @martinsaunders

The Testimony Article

My Story: Zach Johnson, PGA Golfer
May 13th, 2010 | Author: FCA

I’ll try to give you the condensed version… I grew up in Iowa in a great Christian household where church was very important. I went to a Catholic school, so I had religion classes from first through 12th grade. My mom even worked at the church and the school. She just recently retired from that to work for the governing body of the archdiocese. So, I certainly grew up in a Christian household—Jesus was very much the foundation.

For me, however, it felt like I was just following the footsteps of friends and more or less doing what I was told to do. So, after high school, I went my own direction. It was Zach’s agenda; whatever I wanted to do, I did it. My faith didn’t carry much significance.

I graduated from Drake University in 1998 and started playing golf on the mini tours and traveling around the United States. In the winters I would go to Florida to practice.

Then, in 2000, I met a girl named Kim. I really liked her. We hit it off and soon started dating. I was still traveling during the summer seasons, but we maintained our relationship. Over time, I realized that faith in Christ was extremely important to her and that marrying a Christian man was pretty much a dealbreaker for her.

At that point in my life, I knew there was a God. I knew there was an ultimate creator—someone watching over things—but I didn’t give it much thought. In order for Kim and me to find out if we were best for each other, we took a pre-engagement class together at a church. Through that, not only were a lot of my questions answered, but a lot more surfaced. But that’s where God took over. With the research I did in response to those questions and with help from Kim and other Christian friends, I discovered what it meant to “live for Christ,” and that it honestly was something I wanted to do. The facts were there, and I could sense the Holy Spirit at work. Early in the winter of 2002, I gave my life to the Lord.

Since then, my priorities have certainly changed. It’s not Zach’s agenda anymore.

I refer to the years after high school and before making my decision as my “blind years.” Now, I can see.

Before I was one, I always thought being a Christian would be boring. In reality, it has been the complete opposite. There is joy, fulfillment and even fun! There also are challenges and trials, but knowing that my foundation lies in Jesus and what He has done for me is what is important. It’s all that matters.

Thursday, July 23, 2015

1776 Foundation of San Francisco, California

Mission Dolores, the building on the left, 
the oldest building in San Francisco

On September 17th, 1776 the San Francisco presidio was formally opened "...the day on which the Church commemorates the reception of the stigmata by St. Francis, the opening of the mission to follow on the saint's Feast Day, October 4th.

"Solemn High Mass was sung, and although the Fathers had bells, there was a free use of muskets, the ship in the harbor joining in with its swivel guns. The firing terrified the heathen so much that they would not allow themselves to be seen for several days. After this there was the chanting of the Te Deum and on the 8th there was a great banquet, for which two beeves were killed. A more wonderful achievement had come about than probably any of those present realized.

"All of this...happened in 1776, a year before [Junipero] Serra's arrival."

The Long Road of Father Serra, Theodore Maynard, 1954, pp. 193-194.

Viral YouTube Video of Senator Speaking on Senate Floor about Planned Parenthood's Baby Parts' Business

For subtitles click the script rectangle at the bottom of the video. To translate the language of the subtitles click the gear icon and pick your language.

"I think maybe the question needs to be asked why this congress would spend time today debating horse slaughter and debating orca whales; but yet we've become so numb to children, that the other debate [that of the illegal trafficking of the organs of aborted children] doesn't even seem to come up."

--Senator Lankford (R-OK) speaking on July 16th, 2015 (The Feast of Our Lady of Mount Carmel).

Wednesday, July 22, 2015

We Need Immigration Reform, Now! Archbishop Gomez

At minute 25:25 of yesterday's video below, the end of the press conference introductions of the three bishops-elect of Los Angeles, some journalists asked about immigration reform. Here is how the Archbishop, His Excellency Archbishop José Horacio Gómez answered, indicating the human dignity of every immigrant.

Q.1 On the Church's position regarding the immigration problem.

The position of the Church is the same as it has been for the last 20--30 years, and that is that we are praying and working and asking for a comprehensive immigration reform, NOW!

Our concern is, obviously, the dignity of the human person and the unity of the family. So it is really sometimes sad to see that it has become just a political issue; when it is an issue of, a human issue, an issue of humanity.

The immigrants are, as I have said many times, men, women, children: people, just like us. And we need to find the solution to the broken immigration system that we have in our country. So we are totally committed to continue praying and working for immigration reform.

Q. 2 On Mr. Donald Trump's disparaging remark regarding immigrants.

Well, you know, I'm not a politician. I'm a pastor. So, I just haven't paid too much attention to what he said.

But, obviously, we want everybody to respect the dignity of the human person. Every immigrant that comes to this country is a human person, and deserves respect and consideration because they are just people like us: men and women with families, with children, children that need their parents.

So, we hope that everyone in this country continues to respect the dignity of the human person.

Tuesday, July 21, 2015

Three New Auxiliaries for Los Angeles

These appointments are significant in that all three priests are fluent in Spanish as well as English, and their personal testimonies are quite personal. Very edifying. Thank you Pope Francis.
Notice also the high refinement and intelligent transparency of Archbishop Gomez. Deo Gratias!

Saturday, July 18, 2015

¡Cojo, Tuerto y Manco! El Gigante Teniente General Blas de Lezo

You may have heard of Mount Vernon, then you must know of the Gigantic Spanish Lieutenant General Blas de Lezo who devastated the "Invincible English Armada" of Admiral Vernon at the Battle of Cartagena in 1741, given the odds (outnumbered 10 to 1), one of the most glorious days in bellicose history! and a most necessary precursor to the American Revolution, and I might dare say, later to the Southern ambition in the American Civil War. Notice, for example, the very similar cross of the Confederate Flag and the Flag of New Spain (The Spanish Cross of Burgundy).

"El famoso General de los galeones don Blas de Lezo, marino vascongado, quien en combates anteriores, en Málaga, Tolón y Barcelona había perdido la pierna izquierda, el ojo izquierdo y el brazo derecho; este medio hombre contribuyó poderosamente al triunfo que obtuvieron las armas castellanas".
Jesús María Henao y Gerardo Arrobla (1920), Historia de Colombia para la enseñanza secundaria, Obra laureada con medalla de oro y diploma en el concurso nacional que se abrió para celebrar el primer centenario de la Independencia, y con la adopción oficial, Tomo I, tercera edición, notablemente adicionada y corregida, Librería Colombiana, Camacho Roldán y Tamayo, Bogotá.

Sitio de Cartagena de Indias (1741)

Sitio de Cartagena de Indias
Guerra del Asiento
Ataque Cartagena de Indias.jpg
Ataque a Cartagena de Indias por la armada inglesa

Fecha13 de marzo20 de mayo de 1741
LugarCartagena de IndiasVirreinato de Nueva Granada (hoy Colombia)
Coordenadas10°23′07″N 75°32′19″O
ResultadoVictoria decisiva española
Bandera de España 1701-1760.svg Reino de EspañaUnion flag 1606 (Kings Colors).svg Reino de Gran Bretaña
Bandera de España 1701-1760.svg Blas de Lezo
Bandera de España 1701-1760.svg Sebastián de Eslava
Bandera de España 1701-1760.svg Carlos Desnaux
Union flag 1606 (Kings Colors).svg Edward Vernon
Flag of the British East India Company (1707).svg Lawrence Washington
Fuerzas en combate
Total: 30001 -40002
1100 soldados3
400 infantes de marina3
600 marineros2
300 milicianos2
600 arqueros indios4
6 naves4
Total: 27 4005 -30 0001
12.000 soldados, infantes de marina y milicianos6
15 398 marineros7
29 barcos de línea y 22fragatas7
135 transportes8
800 muertos9
1200 heridos
6 navíos de línea
8000-11 000 muertos(fuentes británicas elevan la cifra a 18 000)10
7500 heridos
1500 cañones
50 barcos:11
6 navíos de tres puentes
13 navíos de dos puentes
4 fragatas
27 transportes
[editar datos en Wikidata]
El sitio o batalla de Cartagena de Indias, del 13 de marzo al 20 de mayo de 1741, fue el episodio decisivo que marcó el desenlace de la guerra del Asiento (17391748), uno de los conflictos armados entre España y Gran Bretaña ocurridos durante el siglo XVIII. La victoria de las fuerzas españolas, al mando del teniente general de la Armada Blas de Lezo, prolongó la supremacía militar española en el continente americano hasta el siglo XIX.


En la época constituía para los británicos una prioridad el disponer de plazas fuertes en tierra firme en el Golfo de México y elMar Caribe, que querían convertir en británico y en el que ya disponían de algunas islas, siendo Jamaica la principal de ellas. El poder español a escala europea llevaba 70 años en claro declive, por lo que Inglaterra no estaba dispuesta a seguir aceptando unas condiciones enormemente desventajosas para ellos en lo que al comercio americano se refería. A pesar de aquella legalidad establecida como resultado de guerras pasadas, el contrabando por parte de mercantes ingleses era constante, y no era la primera vez que militares británicos intentaban poner pie en la costa, atacando ciudades o puertos poco protegidos, algunas veces con éxito momentáneo, pero al final los territorios siempre eran reconquistados por los españoles.

El rey británico Jorge II.
Dentro de este panorama, los problemas del contrabando y el corso en el Mar Caribe afectaban por igual a ambas potencias, aunque con ventaja española. Los ingleses reconocen haber capturado 231 buques españoles frente a 331 británicos capturados por los españoles, hasta septiembre de 1741, mientras que los recuentos españoles hablan de 25 frente a 186, aunque a pesar de la gran discordancia de cifras, ambos recuentos reconocen ventaja para los españoles.
Y precisamente uno de los muchos problemas de contrabando, ocurrido en 1738 frente a las costas de Florida, fue el utilizado por Gran Bretaña como pretexto para tratar una vez más de arrebatar a España sus posesiones americanas. El incidente que traería tan terribles consecuencias, se produjo cuando un guardacostas español, La Isabela, al mando delcapitán Julio León Fandiño, apresó a un capitán contrabandista británico, Robert Jenkins, y en castigo le cortó una oreja al tiempo que le decía: «Ve y dile a tu rey que lo mismo le haré si a lo mismo se atreve». A pesar de que el castigo fue moderado dadas las costumbres de la época, Jenkins recogió su oreja y la metió en un frasco de alcohol, regresando a Inglaterra con ella.
En octubre de 1739, tras conocerse el incidente de la oreja, y haber mostrado Jenkins el tarro en el Parlamento británico, se consideró la frase de Fandiño una ofensa al rey Jorge II, merecedora de la declaración de guerra a España; es decir, una ocasión más para tratar de conseguir el ansiado predominio de los mares y la posesión de los ingentes recursos naturales del Virreinato de Nueva Granada. Por ello, este conflicto bélico también es conocido con el nombre de «guerra de la Oreja de Jenkins».

La guerra

Sátira británica de 1740, en la que se puede leer la leyenda «Los españoles construyen castillos en el aire, los británicos le otorgan su importancia al comercio».

El almirante sir Edward Vernon.

El Virrey D.Sebastián de Eslava.
Iniciando las hostilidades en noviembre de 1739, el almirante sir Edward Vernon atacó con 6 buques la plaza de Portobelo en el istmo de Panamá. La plaza estaba defendida por tan solo 700 hombres, por lo que el éxito de Vernon fue absoluto (este suceso da nombre a la calle Portobello Road, en Londres). Mientras, las fuerzas del comodoro Anson, con el navío Septentrión y dos buques menores acosaban las colonias del Pacífico Sur, como maniobra de distracción, pero sin producir daños apreciables. Como fin último, Anson tenía la misión de apoyar desde la costa del Pacífico una futura operación militar en el istmo de Panamá que tendría como objetivo cortar las comunicaciones terrestres entre el Virreinato de Nueva Granada y el de Nueva España, para iniciar acto seguido la conquista británica de Nueva Granada.
Tras ese triunfo inicial, Vernon, envuelto en un clima de euforia, y azuzado por la opinión pública británica y por las incendiarias proclamas del joven parlamentario William Pitt, decidió dar un golpe decisivo, para lo que reunió una formidable flota de 186 buques, con 27 600 hombres, armada con 2000 cañones, que salió desde Port Royal(Jamaica) y fondeó a principios de marzo de 1741 junto a la costa de Cartagena de Indias, la ciudad más importante del Caribe, a la que llegaban todas las mercancías del comercio entre España y las Indias, incluyendo los tesoros extraídos de las minas de Potosí (actual Bolivia) y el Perú.
La ciudad estaba gobernada por el Virrey Sebastián de Eslava y defendida militarmente por uno de los más geniales soldados que haya dado España, el teniente general Blas de Lezo, marino con experiencia en batallar con los británicos y los piratas africanos, que ya había demostrado sobradamente sus condiciones como estratega, pero que disponía solamente de unos 3600 hombres y de una flota de seis buques: el Galicia, el San Carlos, el San Felipe, el África, el Dragón y el Conquistador.
En una carta fechada en Portobelo el 27 de noviembre de 1739, Vernon comenta a Lezo que ha dado un excelente trato a los prisioneros a pesar de que no lo merecían. De Lezo le responde en carta fechada el 24 de diciembre del mismo año a bordo del Conquistador en un tono seco, arrogante y desafiante, y se despide de él no sin antes espetarle:
Puedo asegurarle a Vuestra Excelencia, que si yo me hubiera hallado en Portobelo, se lo habría impedido, y si las cosas hubieran ido a mi satisfacción, habría ido también a buscarlo a cualquier otra parte, persuadiéndome de que el ánimo que faltó a los de Portobelo, me hubiera sobrado para contener vuestra cobardía.

La batalla

Castillo San Felipe de Barajasen Cartagena de Indias desde donde las fuerzas españolas deBlas de Lezo derrotaron a la flota y ejércitos británicos del AlmiranteEdward Vernon durante la Batalla de Cartagena.

Plano de Cartagena de las Indias realizado en 1735 y publicado en la ObraRelación Histórica del Viaje a la América Meridional, de Jorge Juan y Antonio de Ulloa.
La gran flota británica fue avistada el 13 de marzo de 1741, lo que puso en vilo a la ciudad. Antes de disponerse a desembarcar, Vernon silencia las baterías de las fortalezas de ChambaSan Felipe y Santiago. Luego se dispuso a cañonear la fortaleza de San Luis de Bocachica día y noche durante dieciséis días. Bocachica estaba defendida por Carlos Desnaux con 500 hombres que, finalmente, tuvieron que replegarse ante la superioridad ofensiva. Tras esta fortaleza solo quedaba la Fortaleza de Bocagrande como entrada a la bahía. En la primera se destruyeron cuatro barcos para impedir la navegación del estrecho canal y, en la segunda, dos barcos, en contra de la opinión de Blas de Lezo de que no serviría para mucho tras lo visto en Bocachica, para impedir igualmente el acceso a la bahía. El bloqueo del canal de Bocagrande no sirvió para mucho, como había pensado el almirante De Lezo.
Tras esto, Vernon entró triunfante en la bahía y a su vez, todos los defensores españoles se atrincheraron en la fortaleza de San Felipe de Barajas tras haber abandonado la fortaleza de Bocagrande. Vernon, creyendo que la victoria era cuestión de tiempo, despachó un correo a Inglaterra dando la noticia de la victoria.
Seguidamente, ordenó un incesante cañoneo del castillo de San Felipe por mar y tierra para ablandar a las fuerzas guarnecidas en la fortaleza. En ella solo quedaban 600 hombres bajo el mando de De Lezo y Desnaux. Vernon decide rodear la fortaleza y atacar por su retaguardia. Para ello se adentraron en la selva, lo que supuso una odisea para los británicos que contrajeron la malaria y perdieron a cientos de sus hombres. Sin embargo, llegaron a las puertas de la fortaleza y Vernon ordenó atacar con infantería. La entrada a la fortaleza era una estrecha rampa que De Lezo rápidamente mandó taponar con trescientos hombres armados con tan solo armas blancas, y lograron contener el ataque y causar 1500 bajas a los asaltantes.
La moral de los atacantes bajó considerablemente tras esto y por las epidemias que causaban continuas bajas. Vernon se puso muy nervioso en aquel momento ya que la resistencia a ultranza de los españoles superó con creces sus expectativas y ya había enviado la noticia de la victoria a Gran Bretaña. Vernon discutió acaloradamente con sus generales el plan a seguir. Finalmente decidieron construir escalas y sorprender a los defensores en la noche del 19 de abril.

Plano de la Bahía de Cartagena de Indias realizado en 1735 y publicado en la ObraRelación Histórica del Viaje a la América Meridional, de Jorge Juan y Antonio de Ulloa.

Don Blas de Lezo y Olavarrieta, almirante y héroe de la Armada y del Imperio Español. Retrato delMuseo Naval de Madrid.
Los asaltantes, al mando del general Woork, se organizaron en tres columnas de granaderos y varias compañías de casacas rojas. En vanguardia iban los esclavos jamaicanos armados con un simple machete. El avance era lento debido al gran peso de artillería que transportaban y al continuo fuego que salía de las trincheras y desde lo alto de la fortaleza, además de que estaban expuestos en una gran explanada; no obstante, lograron alcanzar las murallas. Pero Blas de Lezo, previendo este ataque, había ordenado cavar un foso en torno a la muralla, con lo que las escalas se quedaron cortas para superar el foso y la muralla, quedando los atacantes desprotegidos y sin saber qué hacer. Los españoles continuaron con su nutrido fuego, lo que provocó una gran masacre en las filas invasoras.
A la mañana siguiente, el 20 de abril, pudieron verse innumerables cadáveres, heridos y mutilados en los alrededores de la fortaleza, poniéndose de manifiesto la gravísima derrota británica. Los españoles aprovecharon para cargar a bayoneta provocando la huida de los británicos. Los españoles lograrían matar a cientos de ellos y hacerse con los pertrechos que abandonaron los sitiadores tras la huida.
Vernon no tuvo más remedio que retirarse a los barcos. Ordenó durante treinta días más un continuo cañoneo, ya que todavía no aceptaban la derrota. Sin embargo, las enfermedades y la escasez de provisiones empezaban a hacer mella en lo que quedaba de tropa. Finalmente, el Alto Mando británico ordena la retirada, de forma lenta y sin cesar de cañonear. Las últimas naves partieron el 20 de mayo. Tuvieron que incendiar cinco de ellas por falta de tripulación.


Consecuencias inmediatas

Medalla conmemorativa inglesa, que representa a Blas de Lezo con ambas piernas, arrodillado ante Vernon y entregándole su espada. La leyenda dice: "The pride of Spain humbled by Ad. Vernon", es decir, "El orgullo de España humillado por el almirante Vernon".

Medalla conmemorativa inglesa de la "toma" de Cartagena por Vernon. En ella aparece el almirante británico sosteniendo un bastón de mando mientras señala a la ciudad. La leyenda dice «Admiral Vernon vhiwing the town of Carthagana», es decir «El almirante Vernon tomando la villa de Cartagena».
Los británicos tuvieron entre 8000 y 10 000 muertos y unos 7500 heridos, muchos de los cuales murieron en el trayecto a Jamaica. En Cartagena había sucumbido la flor y nata de la oficialidad imperial británica. Además perdieron 1500 cañones e innumerables morteros, tiendas y todo tipo de pertrechos. Diecisiete buques de guerra resultaron seriamente dañados,12 aunque no se perdió ninguno.13 Esto suponía un serio revés para la flota de guerra británica, que quedó prácticamente desmantelada y tardó mucho en reponerse.
Mientras tanto, en Gran Bretaña se estuvo celebrando la «victoria» sin conocerse aún el desastroso final. Se acuñaron hasta once tipos diferentes14 de medallas y monedas conmemorativas ensalzando la toma de Cartagena por parte de las fuerzas angloamericanas. Una de ellas mostraba a Lezo arrodillado ante Vernon, entregándole su espada y con la inscripción «El orgullo de España humillado por Vernon».15 Estas llegaron a circular por España para la burla de los españoles. En 1742, Vernon, enterado de la muerte de Lezo, rondó de nuevo Cartagena, pero no se atrevió a atacar.
Los británicos empezaron a preguntarse cuándo volverían los navíos y hombres que faltaban, y se descubrió la verdad, por lo que el rey Jorge II, avergonzado, prohibió a sus cronistas que hicieran mención alguna de tal suceso. Vernon murió en 1757.
En conjunto, la guerra reportó escasos éxitos y muchos problemas a Gran Bretaña, ya que al fracaso de Cartagena de Indias se sumaron varias derrotas cuando los británicos trataron de tomar San Agustín (Florida),La Guaira y Puerto Cabello (Venezuela) y Guantánamo y La Habana (Cuba). No obstante, el contraataque español en la batalla de Bloody Marsh, en Georgia, pudo ser repelido y por ello los combates finalizaron sin cambios fronterizos en América. Por su parte España consiguió mantener sus territorios, y prolongar su supremacía militar en América durante algunas décadas más.

Consecuencias a largo plazo

El oficial británicoLawrence Washington, hermano del primer presidente de los Estados Unidos George Washington.
Como resultado de esta batalla España fortaleció el control de su Imperio en América durante 70 años más aproximadamente y con él la prolongación de la rivalidad marítima entre españoles, franceses y británicos hasta comienzos del siglo XIX. Para el Reino Unido, las consecuencias a medio plazo fueron mucho más graves. Gracias a esta victoria sobre los británicos, España pudo mantener unos territorios y una red de instalaciones militares en el Caribe y el Golfo de México que serían magistralmente utilizados por el teniente coronel Bernardo de Gálvez para jugar un papel determinante en la independencia de las colonias británicas de Norteamérica, durante la llamada guerra de independencia estadounidense, en 1776. La Guerra del Asiento se fundiría más tarde en la Guerra de Sucesión Austríaca, por lo que Gran Bretaña y España no firmaron la paz hasta el Tratado de Aquisgrán, en 1748.
España renovó tanto el derecho de asiento como el navío de permiso con los británicos, cuyo servicio se había interrumpido durante la guerra. Sin embargo, esta restitución duraría apenas dos años, ya que por el Tratado de Madrid (1750), Gran Bretaña renunció a ambos a cambio de una indemnización de 100.000 libras. Estas concesiones, que en 1713 parecían tan ventajosas (y constituyeron unas de las cláusulas del Tratado de Utrecht), se habían tornado prescindibles en 1748. Además, entonces ya parecía claro que la paz con España no duraría demasiado (se rompió de nuevo en 1761, al sumarse los españoles a la Guerra de los Siete Años en apoyo de los franceses), así que su pérdida no resultaba para nada catastrófica.
Una curiosa consecuencia de esta campaña fue la que se derivó del oficial británico, Lawrence Washington, quien había participado en el sitio. Dio a su hacienda en Virginia (hoy Estados Unidos), el nombre de Mount Vernon, en honor a su almirante. Esa hacienda quedó posteriormente en manos del medio hermano de Lawrence, George Washington, líder revolucionario norteamericano y primer presidente de los Estados Unidos de América, por lo que Mount Vernon es hoy un emplazamiento histórico.



  1. ↑ Saltar a:a b Browning, 1993: 60
  2. ↑ Saltar a:a b c Hart, 1922: 146
  3. ↑ Saltar a:a b Fernández Duro, 1902: 247
  4. ↑ Saltar a:a b Lemaitre, Eduardo (1998). Breve Historia de Cartagena. Medellín: Editorial Colina.
  5. Volver arriba Beatson, 1804: 25-27
  6. Volver arriba Historiadores como Beatson, Hart, Duncan, Lord Mahon, Hume y otros dan 12 000 tropas británicas en tierra, principalmente ingleses y jamaicanos pero también 3600 milicianos de Virginia.
  7. ↑ Saltar a:a b Beatson, 1804: 25-26
  8. Volver arriba Smollett & Hume, 1848: 391
  9. Volver arriba Marley, 1998: 259
  10. Volver arriba "El desastre del ataque británico a Cartagena de Indias (Colombia), en 1741".
  11. Volver arriba
  12. Volver arriba Cesáreo Fernández Duro: Armada española desde la unión de los reinos de Castilla y de León, Vol. VI. Est. tipográfico Sucesores de Rivadeneyra, Madrid, 1902, p. 250
  13. Volver arriba Beatson, pag. 83.
  14. Volver arriba Fernández Duro pp. 251
  15. Volver arriba Hernández Sánchez-Barba, Mario (1992). El mar en la historia de América. Ed. MAPFRE


  • Segovia Salas, Rodolfo (1998). «Cartagena de Indias: historiografía de sus fortificaciones». Índice general del Boletín Cultural y Bibliográfico del Banco de la República, Publicación de la Subgerencia Cultural, Colombia. XXXIV (45).
  • Victoria, Pablo Eduardo (2005). «El día que España derrotó a Inglaterra». Ed. ÁlteraISBN 978-84-897-7968-6.
  • Una vívida descripción literaria de la batalla de Cartagena puede encontrarse en la obra del autor inglés Tobias Smollett, quien participó en la misma: Smollett, Tobias George (2007). «Las aventuras de Roderick Random». Ed. Montesinos.
  • Membrillo Becerra, Francisco Javier (2011). La Batalla de Cartagena de Indias. ISBN 978-84-615-3894-2.
  • Beatson, Robert (1804). Naval and Military Memoirs of Great Britain, from 1727 to 1783. Vol. I; Vol. III. Apéndice. Londres: Imprenta de Longman, Hurst, Rees & Orme.
  • Ibañez, Ignacio Rivas (2008). Mobilizing Resources for war: the intelligence systems during the War of Jenkin's Ear. Londres: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller.
  • Hume, David (1825). The History of England. Londres: T. Smollett Editorial.
  • Hart, Francis Russel (1922). Admirals of the Caribbean. Boston: Riverside Press.
  • Fernández Duro, Cesáreo (1902). Armada española desde la unión de los reinos de Castilla y de León. Tomo VI. Madrid: Sucesores de Rivadeneyra.
  • Smollett, Tobias George & Hume, David (1848). History of England. Tomo II, Londres: Longman, Brown, Green & Longmans.
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